Understanding the Different Types of Financial Statements

You may have heard of different types of financial statements, such as the Balance sheet, Income statement, and Statement of change in equity. While all of them contain useful information, they are not all created equally. The differences between each one are largely based on how they are used. Let’s examine some of the different types of statements and how they are used to understand your business. Ultimately, they all provide information you can use to make better decisions.

Income Statement

An income (or balance) sheet is one of the four major types of financial statements. It records the flow of funds into and out of the company. Another type, the consolidated balance sheet, details the company’s assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity, which represents the book value of the shares of stock held by shareholders. These three types of financial statements help investors and creditors better understand the company’s performance and predict its future course.

An income statement also includes expenses. These include the costs associated with providing goods or services. The cost of goods sold (COGS) reflects the cost of materials and labor. General administrative costs are not related to production but are necessary to the organization. Depreciation and amortization, as well as other costs related to a company’s assets, are also included in the income statement. Net income, also called net profit, is the sum of these costs and represents the profits or losses realized by the company.

Balance Sheet

The balance sheet is a basic financial statement for a company. It gives investors a snapshot of the company’s assets and liabilities. The amount of cash on hand is listed as an asset. In addition to cash, a company may have other liquid assets, such as accounts receivable and inventory. Other forms of assets may not be listed on the balance sheet, such as intangible assets, such as equipment or inventory.


The balance sheet is the most basic of all financial statements, and the first to be reviewed. This document shows the value of an organization’s assets and liabilities. Assets are listed in terms of their expected turnover. Liabilities are listed next, with current assets being listed first. Then, fixed assets, such as a building, are listed. A portion of these assets is deducted from the total amount of current assets, which is then divided by two: current and long-term. The differences between the two are important to understand when analyzing a company’s assets and liabilities.

Statement Of Change In Equity

The Statement of Change in Equity is a section in the financial statements that reconciles the opening and closing balance sheets. The statement also explains the relationship between the income statement and balance sheet. It includes all transactions that were not recognized in the income statement, including any withdrawal of equity or changes in accounting policies or corrections made in the previous period. The following steps will help you prepare the Statement of Change in Equity. Ensure that all balances are correct and consistent.

The statement of change in equity shows how the owners’ equity has changed since the previous period. It also shows the changes in equity that may have been caused by different factors, including new monetary investment, bonus compensations, holder withdrawals, and revisions in fixed assets. The Statement of Change in Equity is intended to show the connections between the income statement and balance sheet, which can help investors and stockholders make informed decisions.

Notes To Financial Statements

Financial statements are not complete without the accompanying notes. The notes provide detailed information not included in the financial statements, such as revenue, payment terms, warranties, and other pertinent information. The notes are generally prepared on a “going concern” basis, which assumes the company will continue to operate and be able to meet its liabilities. However, the notes can include other details, such as the risks facing the company. In addition, the notes may include information about future vulnerabilities.

The information in the notes to financial statements are critical for assessing the financial position of the company. Intangible assets are those that do not have a physical form, such as patents and trademarks. The notes also explain how the financial statements were consolidated. This consolidation is done to verify the financial statements of all the subsidiaries in a company. Footnotes explain how consolidation was accomplished. This allows for a clearer understanding of a company’s financial performance.

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